S.S. Shchyetinin, assisted by M.A. Shchyerbakov, started aircraft factory St Petersburg 1911, this soon becoming First Russian Aviation Works. Built Nieuport IV and Farman XVI, but plant manager D.P. Grigorovich soon began producing his own designs of pusher biplane flying-boat, based on a Donnet-Lévêque. This M-1 led to long series of M (Morskoi = naval) flying-boats built by Shchyetinin factory ending with M-20, MK-1 3-engined seaplane and GASN twin-engined seaplane 1917. Total output by October 1917 about 2,000, including 580 of M-9 type.

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